Anna H. O. Saho; Early victims of maltreatment and their coping strategies during a seven-week clinical observation in a forensic youth center

The present study analyzes the association between early victims of child-maltreatment and their coping strategies during a seven-week clinical observation in a forensic youth center. Analysis of the obtained data, by using the FPJ-list, is based on 179 male participants, between the ages of 12 and 25 years old, who have been observed in forensic youth center Teylingereind. Coping is subcategorized in positive, avoidance and negative coping. Child-maltreatment is categorized in physical abuse, sexual abuse and witnessing intimate partner violence. Results show that there are no significant differences in the use of positive, negative and avoidance coping between maltreated and non-maltreated participants. There are, however, significant differences between the different maltreatment groups. Victims of physical abuse use more positive- than avoidance- or negative coping and more negative- than avoidance coping. Victims of sexual abuse and witnessing intimate partner violence use more positive- than avoidance- or negative coping. Most results are contrary to expectations and in contrast to the used previous literature.

Nadine Boer; Aggression in institutionalized, male juvenile offenders from various ethnic origins. The Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) as a tool for classifying aggression in a forensic setting

Reactive and proactive aggression are two forms of aggression that have often been described in previous articles. Both forms share an amount of correlates and additionally show some distinct associations with other variables linked to mental disorders or misbehavior. Aggression as well as mental disorders are very common within juvenile justice institutes. The aim of the current study was to provide cut-offs for aggression that help to identify highly aggressive youths who greatly differ in clinically relevant features (e.g., mental health problems) from youths with lower levels of reactive and/or proactive aggression. To achieve this, current study used data of the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) with addition of MAYSI-2 and SDQ data of N = 1591 detained male juveniles from various ethnic origins. To ensure that cut-offs can be used across all ethnicities, cut-offs were identified within 4 ethnic groups, being Dutch, Moroccan, Antillean-Surinamese and mixed ethnicities. Cut-offs for the RPQ identify juveniles with high aggression levels and also higher scores on variables screening for mental disorder, compared to juveniles with normal aggression levels. Therefore, current study facilitates RPQ score interpretation and helps optimize screening, diagnostics and treatment of institutionalized juvenile offenders.

Jolien Verhage; The relation between IQ, psychopathic traits and substance use among male adolescent delinquents.

This thesis studies the relationship between three risk factors for criminality: substance use, low IQ and psychopathic traits in male adolescent delinquents of two Dutch juvenile justice centres. New insights in these relationships can bring information to improve treatments and reduce recidivism. There were 1230 participants between 12-25 years old, who were assessed with modules of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version IV (DISC-IV; substance use), Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC-III; IQ)/Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III; IQ) and Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory (YPI; psychopathic traits). The results of the current study found no difference between the group with and without substance use on full scale (p = .332), verbal (p = .442)  and performance IQ (p = .320), but did find a difference between the group with and without substance use on psychopathic traits (p < .001). Male adolescent delinquents who scored positive on substance use showed more psychopathic traits than male adolescent delinquents who scored negative on substance use. There was no significant correlation between IQ and psychopathic traits in the group who scored positive on substance use (r = 0.068, p = .727). There was an unexpected weak positive correlation between IQ and psychopathic traits in the group who scored negative on substance use (r = 0.271, p = .007) in which higher IQ was correlated to more psychopathic traits. There was no difference found in strength of correlation of IQ and psychopathic traits between the group with substance use and in the group without substance use (p = .342). It can be concluded that the relationship between the risk factors IQ, psychopathic traits and substance use in male adolescent delinquents in a juvenile detention centre is not entirely clear. Further research is needed to study the relationship between the risk factors for criminality: substance use, IQ and psychopathic traits.

Rosa Norp; Ouders over gezinsgericht werken in JJI’s. Een analyse van de verschillende behoeften van ouders aan betrokkenheid tussen verblijf- en leeftijdsgroepen

The aim of this study was twofold. First, to examine parenting stress and satisfaction with the juvenile justice institution (JJI) experienced by participating parents (N = 51) in family-centered care (GGW). Second, to learn about their experiences, views and expectations of GGW, 19 parents were interviewed. Differences between the type of living (YOUTURN and GGW) and between the age groups (16- and 16+) were part of this research. The present study was focused on parents of incarcerated male adolescents aged between 12 and 21 years. Non-parametric tests were used to examine the population of the GGW-parents. Contrary to our expectations, the results of this study showed that these parents report a low level of parenting stress. However, it appeared that these parents experience more parenting stress than the population of parents without child welfare involvement. On the other hand, the parents in our study reported less parenting stress than the clinical group.
Furthermore, the parents in our study were generally satisfied with the treatment in the JJI. The semi-structured interviews were the basis of the qualitative analysis. The analysis of these interviews showed that the involvement of parents is more embedded in the GGW-groups in comparison to the YOUTURN-groups. The desired involvement of parents includes an introductory meeting, frequently contact (by telephone), group activities, and participating in discussions about the care process. Reasons for dissatisfaction with the JJI are limited information, lack of initiative, and feedback on the progress of their son. Insight in these factors may help to further improve the program of family-centered care and its implementation in practice, which in turn can lead to more involvement of parents during their child’s detention.

Jacolien H. van der Maas; The Influence of IQ on the Relationship between Stressful Life. Events and Severity of Delinquency among Dutch Incarcerated Male Adolescents

Research has consistently shown that juvenile delinquent behavior is related to risk factors such as a lower IQ and the experience of stressful life events. The aim of this study was to investigate the role IQ plays in the relationship between stressful life events and the severity of delinquency among Dutch incarcerated male adolescents.

In this study, 163 incarcerated male adolescents, aged 12-18 years old, were screened for stressful life events using JTV (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) and were tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Test (WISC-III or WAIS-III). Criminal offences of these juvenile were categorised into twelve categories from least to most severe offences (Brand et al., 2005).

Our main findings were significant relationships between Verbal IQ (VIQ) and severity of delinquency, as well as Performance IQ (PIQ) and severity of delinquency. Another interesting finding was the prevalence of almost equal groups of disharmonic profiles of VIQ < PIQ and VIQ > PIQ. These results are noteworthy, because a number of previous studies have found a regular pattern of a higher prevalence of VIQ < PIQ profiles and a smaller number of VIQ > PIQ profiles. Unexpectedly, no moderation effect of Verbal IQ on the relationship between stressful life events and severity of delinquency was found. These results nevertheless suggest that it is important to stimulate the cognitive development of at risk juveniles, in order to reduce the likelihood of delinquency and recidivism.

Marco Simons; ‘EIGENLIJK IS HET EEN HELE LIEVE JONGEN’. Overeenkomsten en verschillen in rapportages over probleemgedrag tussen jongens in een justitiële jeugdinrichting en hun ouders

Schattingen door jongeren en hun ouders van de mate, waarin sprake is van psychische problematiek bij deze jongeren, blijken discrepanties te vertonen en onderzoek hiernaar beperkt zich bijna uitsluitend tot normale en klinische populaties. In deze studie werd onderzocht in hoeverre dit ook geldt voor delinquente jongeren in een Justitiële Jeugdinrichting (JJI), deze verschillen ook relevant zijn voor clinici in een JJI en of discrepanties verschillen voor internaliserend en externaliserend probleemgedrag.

Hiertoe werd bij 1033 delinquente jongens van 12 tot 25 jaar in JJI Teylingereind en JJI Lelystad, de Strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ) afgenomen, en bij een deel van hen ook drie andere instrumenten, waaronder de Youth Self-report (YSR). Bij een representatieve steekproef van 47 van hen werden ook de ouders bevraagd. Rapportages van jongens over hun probleemgedrag als geheel, over internaliserend probleemgedrag en voor een deel van externaliserend probleemgedrag bleken alleen significant te verschillen van die van hun ouders voor de SDQ. De richting van rapportageverschillen bleek over verschillende subschalen van de SDQ te variëren, maar niet afhankelijk te zijn van het internaliserende of externaliserende karakter van specifiek probleemgedrag.

Anders dan bij normale en klinische populaties lijken gevonden verschillen niet samen te hangen met de observeerbaarheid van gedrag. Voor een deel van de schalen en subschalen van SDQ en YSR bleken rapportages van jongeren ook samen te hangen met die van hun ouders. Voor circa 60 procent van de jongens werd minimaal één aanwijzing voor probleemgedrag gevonden. Aanvullende rapportage door ouders lijkt, ondanks dat gemiddeld geen klinisch significante verschillen werden gevonden, andere perspectieven op te leveren voor clinici bij het screenen en diagnosticeren van specifiek probleemgedrag, dan alleen zelfrapportage zou doen. Daarmee wordt overigens niet gesteld, dat rapportages door ouders betrouwbaarder zijn dan die van deze jongens.

L. Meurs; Psychometrische eigenschappen van de SDQ bij vier etnische groepen in justitiële jeugdinrichtingen

In dit onderzoek zijn de psychometrische eigenschappen van de Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) bij vier etnische groepen in justitiële jeugdinrichtingen onderzocht, te weten autochtoon Nederlandse jongeren (n=97) en jongeren van Marokkaanse (n=118), Turkse (n=32) en Surinaamse (n=56) afkomst. De betrouwbaarheidsanalyse wijst uit dat de interne consistenties voor de vier groepen variëren van laag tot acceptabel. Wel bleken de schalen van de SDQ een goede samenhang te vertonen met inhoudelijk verwante schalen van de Youth Self-Report (YSR).

Vergeleken met autochtoon Nederlandse en Surinaamse delinquente jongeren laten Marokkaanse delinquente jongeren over het geheel genomen lagere probleemscores zien. Turkse delinquente jongeren scoren lager dan de autochtoon Nederlandse groep op externaliserende problemen. Ondanks deze verschillen waren de probleemscores bij alle groepen opvallend laag.

N. Hornby; Psychometrische eigenschappen van de Nederlandse versie van de Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version: een onderzoek bij jongens in justitiële jeugdinrichtingen

In deze studie zijn de psychometrische eigenschappen van de Nederlandse versie van de Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-second version (MAYSI-2) onderzocht. Data is verzameld bij 913 jongens in twee Justitiële Jeugdinrichtingen (JJI’s). Methoden van onderzoek en analyse van data volgden waar mogelijk het initiële valideringsonderzoek uit de VS (Grisso et al., 2001).

Verwacht werd dat de resultaten van deze studie overeen zouden komen met die van het Amerikaanse onderzoek. Dit bleek gedeeltelijk het geval. Voor de Nederlandse situatie varieerde de interne consistentie van de schalen van de MAYSI-2 van laag tot goed. De convergente validiteit bleek adequaat. Verder onderzoek naar de psychometrische eigenschappen en klinische bruikbaarheid van de MAYSI-2 voor de Nederlandse JJI populatie is aangewezen.

Berit L. Brouwer; Psychopathy and Institutional Infractions among Dutch Incarcerated Male Adolescents

In the present study, the short 18-item version of the Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI-S) was used to examine whether adolescent males (n = 376, age 12–18) in a Dutch forensic setting could be differentiated based on psychopathic-like trait-profiles into a relatively normal group, an impulsive non-psychopathic-like group and a psychopathic-like group as proposed by Andershed, Kerr, Stattin &Levander (2002a) and whether these groupdifferences predicted type and quantity of institutional infractions. The YPI-S has not been used previously in a Dutch forensic setting, but has a high convergence with the original 50item version and is therefore a time- and cost-effective method to measure. So far, the abovementioned psychopathic-like profiles have not been examined in a Dutch forensic setting.

The proposed three groups could be differentiated as expected. The psychopathic-like group showed higher scores of infractions than the other two groups. Furthermore the psychopathic-like subgroup, as expected, did not show a difference in physical infractions directed at peers or staff. These findings justify the conclusion that YPI-S is a useful measure for group differentiation and prediction of institutional infractions among Dutch forensic adolescent males.

N.D. Gorter-Houtmans; Screening en psychiatrische diagnostiek: vragenlijstonderzoek in twee Nederlandse Justitiële Jeugdinrichtingen

Doel: Onderzoeken in hoeverre de antwoorden op vragenlijsten betreffende psychiatrische problemen van jongens die zijn opgenomen in een Nederlandse Justitiële Jeugdinrichting (JJI) consistent zijn over instrumenten en over tijd.

Methode: Het betreft vragenlijstenonderzoek onder strafrechtelijke geplaatste jongens tussen de 13 en 23 jaar oud in twee Nederlandse JJI’s. Jongens (N=172) die nieuw binnenkwamen op de opvanggroepen tussen juli 2009 en november 2010 vulden na binnenkomst in de JJI de Massachusetts Youth Screening Instrument-Second Version (MAYSI-2) en de Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in als onderdeel van de screeningsprocedure, aangevuld met de Youth Self-Report (YSR), de ReactiveProactive aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), de Jeugd Trauma Vragenlijst (JTV), Development And WellBeing Assesment (DAWBA) en de Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV). Van juli 2010 tot november 2010 werd de MAYSI-2 afname twee weken na binnenkomst herhaald. Van augustus 2010 tot november 2010 zijn de DAWBA en de DISC drie maanden na de screening opnieuw afgenomen. Consistentie in klinische scores over vragenlijsten en over tijd is onderzocht.

Resultaten: Alle subschalen van de MAYSI-2 correleren significant met vergelijkbare subschalen van de SDQ, YSR, RPQ en JTV. De MAYSI-2 subschalen correleren significant met DAWBA en DISC symptoomschalen. Op drie subschalen van de MAYSI-2 vindt een significante daling plaats in schaalscore bij de afname na twee weken. Bij DISC en DAWBA afname na drie maanden worden geen significante verschillen gevonden met de afname op t0.  In 25% van de gevallen scoort een jongere met een klinische score op een bepaalde subschaal van de MAYSI-2 op t0, ook afwijkend op een vergelijkbare schaal van de DISC of DAWBA op t2.

Conclusie: De consistentie over vragenlijsten is hoog. Afname van de MAYSI-2 na 2 weken geeft een significante score-daling ten opzichte van afname bij binnenkomst. De MAYSI-2 lijkt ook in Nederlandse JJI’s een veelbelovend screeningsinstrument.